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Что означает слово "Шеол"?

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2303.0 שָׁאַל (shaal) ask, inquire, borrow, beg. спросить, спрашивать, одолжить, выпросить.

(2303a) שְׁאֵלָה (sheela request, demand. запрос, требование

(2303b) מִשְׁאָלָה (mishala petition, desire. ходатайство, желание.

(2303c) שְּׁאוֹל (sheol) sheol, grave, hell, pit. шеол, могила, ад, яма.

The verb shaal occurs 176 times in the OT, almost always in the Qal. It is used six times in the Aramaic of Dan and Ezr, where the form is sheel (Dan 2:10-11, 27; Ezr 5:9-10; Ezr 7:21).

In its OT usage shaal signifies "to ask" something of someone, whether the request be an asking for some physical object (Exo 3:22) or for some information, (Gen 32:17 [H 18]) or whether it be in the form of a demand for another's death (Job 31:30), the demand made by a superior upon an inferior (Job 38:3), or the begging petition of a suppliant (Prov 20:4). It may denote asking a favor for temporary use (Exo 22:14 [H 13]), or in a weakened sense, "to seek, desire" (Eccl 2:10). The accusative of either the person asked or the object requested normally follows, and sometimes both (e.g. Psa 137:3, "For there they-asked us, our-captors, words-of-song"). The KJV unfortunately translated this word as "borrow" in Exo 3:22; Exo 11:2; and Exo 12:35. But the word does not usually connote repayment and did not in this context. The RSV, NASB and NIV, e.g., use "ask."

Over and over again in the OT shaal is used of men and women asking or falling to ask God for guidance, i.e., enquiring of the Lord. David, a man after God's own heart, many times "enquired of the Lord" (e.g. 1Sam 23:2; 1Sam 30:8; 2Sam 2:1; 2Sam 5:19, 23; 1Chr 14:10, 14). Yet in Josh 9:14 the leaders of Israel "asked not (counsel) at the mouth of the Lord," and we read in Isa 30:1-2, "Woe to the rebellious children, saith the Lord... that... have not asked at my mouth." In the same sense sh¹°al is used for the sinful consultation of pagan deities, as in Ezek 21:21, "For the king of Babylon... consulted with images, he looked in the liver."

shaal is also used to signify a request for something, and frequently this too is directed to God. Thus Psa 122:6 admonishes us to "pray for the peace of Jerusalem," and Isa 7:11 shows the prophet challenging wicked Ahaz, "Ask thee a sign of the Lord." Among the items mentioned in the OT as things which God has been asked for we find: understanding, life, a king, a child for the barren, rain, and in Isa 58:2, "the ordinances of justice." Thus men and women not only "ask" (sh¹°al) God for guidance (above), but they are seen in the OT as beseeching him through prayer and through a prophet for the needs and issues of life.

sheela. Request, petition, demand, loan, This feminine noun appears fifteen times in the OT, including its lone occurrence as sh®°¢la° in Dan 4:17 [H 14] amid the Aramaic portion of Dan. It consistently represents a "request" or "petition" whether made to a person (Jud 8:24, Gideon's request to the men of Israel for gold), a king (Est 5:6ff. Esther's petition to King Ahasuerus for a banquet), or to God himself (1Sam 1:27, Hannah's prayer to God for a son).

mishala. Petition, desire. This feminine noun occurs only twice in the OT, in Psa 20:5 [H 6] "The Lord fulfil all thy petitions," and in Psa 37:4, "He (the Lord) shall give thee the desires of thine heart." Interestingly enough, both of these occurrences speak of God's fulness in granting the prayerful petitions of those who love his name amid evildoers and troublesome times. G.G.C.

sheol. The grave, hell, pit. The KJV use "grave" thirty-one times, "hell" thirty times, "Pit" three times. The ASV and RSV translate as "Sheol." NIV uses "grave" with a footnote "Sheol." The etymology is uncertain. The word does not occur outside of the OT, except once in the Jewish Elephantine papyri, where it means "grave" (A. Cowley, Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B. C., Oxford, 1923, no. 71:15). The word obviously refers in some way to the place of the dead.

There is much difference of opinion on the meaning of the term, occasioned in part by differing approaches to the OT teaching on a future life. Snaith, e.g., holds that there was no such teaching except in the intertestamental times of Dan 12:2 and "trito-Isa" (Isa 26:19; N. H. Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the OT, Schocken, 1964, p. 89). Dahood, quite to the contrary, finds the future life throughout the Psa and in other OT literature (see bibliography). The present writer holds that the future life is affirmed in many places in the OT, although details are not given. The intermediate state and the destiny of the wicked get less emphasis. Resurrection for the righteous is clearly and repeatedly expressed.

One problem with sheôl is that both good men (Jacob, Gen 37:35) and bad men (Korah, Dathan, etc., Num 16:30) go there. This led the early church to hold that the OT saints went to a limbus patrum, a kind of upper level of Sheol from which Christ delivered them at his resurrection (1Pet 3:19; Eph 4:9-10). The NT verses are highly problematical. The first one likely refers only to Noah's preaching by the Spirit of Christ; the second refers to Christ's descent from heaven and return there.

Rather than a two-compartment theory, it is easier to hold to a double meaning of sheol. It can be held that originally the word meant just "the grave" and became specialized for "hell." This is the viewpoint of the KJV. "Hell" is more in point in the later passages than in the Pentateuch. Still Num 16:30, 33 and Deut 32:22 are "hell" in the KJV.

A common view today is that sheol is a name for the underworld (Dahood and many). One problem with this is the theological one. Does the OT teach, in contradiction to the NT, that all men after death go to a dark and dismal place where the dead know nothing and are cut off from God? In Mesopotamian sources all people go to the underworld, live in darkness and sorrow, eat clay and are plagued in various ways. There is no fiery torture. If the NT teaches otherwise (Lk 23:43), can such a view of the OT be held?

A third view is that sheol does not describe the place where the souls of men go, but the place where their bodies go, the grave. Where their souls go is learned from other Scriptures (Exo 3:6; Mt 22:32). This view is attractive. It avoids the rather artificial two-compartment theory on the one hand and the theologically questionable theory of an undifferentiated underworld or place of departed spirits on the other hand, where all men go into dismal darkness and shadowy existence. It does not favor soul sleep or annihilation of the wicked, for it speaks only of the destination of bodies. The condition of the souls of men until the resurrection is not in view. The question is, can the passages be fairly interpreted as "grave?"

Space forbids detailed treatment, but a good number of verses can be collected where the meaning "grave" seems to be demanded. The four in Gen all refer to Jacob being brought down in sorrow to the grave. The references to Joab and Shimei in 1Kings 2:6, 9 are similar. All but eight of the passages concerned are poetic, and it may be that sheol is just a poetic synonym for qeber which is used seventy-one times for "grave" (and the verb qabar is used all 132 times for "bury"). in two passages using sheol (Psa 16:10 [H 11] and Hos 13:14), the OT is quoted in the New (Acts 2:27; cf. Acts 13:35 and 1Cor 15:55). In the first case the passage is used to support the bodily resurrection of Christ from the grave, in the second, the resurrection of believers.

Significant is the series of usages in Ezek 31 and Ezek 32. In highly poetic language the prophet declares that Pharaoh, king of Egypt, will fall before the king of Babylon, as Assyria had done, The expressions used are instructive. Assyria was destined for death. Elam, Meshech, Tubal and the nations are pictured as slain, lying with the uncircumcised, with those killed by the sword. These are all said to be in sheol (Ezek 31:15, 16, 17; Ezek 32:21, 27). They are said to be in the grave, qeber (Ezek 32:22, 23, 25, 26). The word "pit," bor, is used of them eight times (Ezek 31:14, 16; Ezek 32:18, 23, 24, 25, 29). The "earth below" (NIV), 'eres tahtit, is used five times (Ezek 31:14, 16, 18; Ezek 32:18, 24). Once it is said that that their "graves," qeber, are in the sides or depths (yerek) of the pit, bor. It should be remembered that forty-two times out of sixty-two bor simply means a hole dug in the ground: a cistern, well, or dungeon. Graves in Palestine were also dug just this way, usually in rock, and the other twenty uses of bor refer to the pit of death, most naturally interpreted as sepulcher, tomb. These tombs often had shelves cut in the sides where bodies were placed, The writer took part in excavation of a tomb at Dothan with three such sheives on which many bodies had been placed with pottery and spear points in abundance (cf. Ezek 32:27, "down to the grave, sheol, with their weapons of war," NIV). The picture is one of universal slaughter and universal burial. They all "lie with the uncircumcised, killed by the sword." sheol here means simply "grave," as is also argued by A. Heidel in an important treatment (see bibliography).

Similar is the usage in Isa 14:11-20, spoken of the king of Babylon. The same terms are used: sheôl twice (vv. 11, 15), pit, bor, twice (vv. 15, 19). Grave, qeber, is used once (v. 19) and its verb once (v. 20). Interesting are vv. 18-20. Most kings get royal burial and lie in state in their tombs (bayit "house"). But this king lies covered by the slain of battle, trampled under foot, not buried with his fathers in royal pomp.

In Job 17:13-16 sheol is said to be like a bed in darkness characterized by dust, the worm, and decay-a perfect picture of a Palestinian tomb. Job 24:19-20 also speaks of the worm feasting on those in sheol. Job 21:13 poses the problem of the wicked who prosper in life and have an easy death. They lie side by side with others in the dust, and worms cover them both (v. 26). Clearly, the grave is meant. The parallel of sheol and destruction, abaddon, in Job 26:6 should be compared with the parallel of qeber, grave, and abaddon in Psa 88:11 [H 12] (cf. the use of sheol in Psa 88:3 [H 4] and qeber and bor in vv. 5 and in 4 and 6 [H 6,5,7]). The mixture in this psalm is quite reminiscent of that in Ezek 31 and Ezek 32. The parallel of sheol with abaddon occurs again in Prov 15:11 and Prov 27:20 (cf. Prov 30:16).

Complete treatment of all the passages is beyond our space. A number of them are inconclusive and could refer either to deliverance from future punishment, such as Prov 15:24; Prov 23:14; Psa 86:13 (but cf. Psa 88:3 [H 4] and Psa 89:48 [H 49]). Or they can also be treated as referring to deliverance from untimely death.

There are three passages which use sheol as a great depth, sometimes opposite to heaven (Psa 139:8; Job 11:8; Amos 9:2; and cf. Deut 32:22; Isa 57:9). It should be remembered that the Hebrews had no deep mines or oil wells to compare for depth. The royal tombs of Ur were dug thirty feet deep. The context of Amos 9:2 gives the contrast of the heights of Carmel and the bottom of the sea. Such figures for depth could well arise from the meaning "tomb."

As to the usage in Num 16 and the similar phraseology in Psa 55:15 [H 16], the picture is that Korah, Dathan, and Abiram with their families and with all their belongings were buried alive. The KJV "quick" of course means "alive." That they went to hell (at least the principals in the rebellion) is doubtless true, but all the text refers to is the miraculous catastrophe by which they were killed.

If this interpretation of sheol is correct, its usage does not give us a picture of the state of the dead in gloom, darkness, chaos, or silence, unremembered, unable to praise God, knowing nothing. Such a view verges on unscriptural soul sleep. Rather, this view gives us a picture of a typical Palestinian tomb, dark, dusty, with mingled bones and where "this poor lisping stammering tongue lies silent in the grave." All the souls of men do not go to one place. But all people go to the grave. As to the destiny of the souls of men in the intermediate state, the OT says little. Actually the NT says little too, but what it says is decisive... The saved go to heaven and bliss; the wicked go to hell and torment. In the OT the hope of the righteous is life with God, the wicked have not this hope. Cf. Dahood's interpretation of Psa 23:6; Psa 17:15 and others (Psalms, AB, in loc.), also Prov 23:18; Prov 24:14, 20 (M. Dahood, Proverbs and Northwest Semitic Philology, Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1963, pp. 48, 51). Numbers of other verses speak of eventual resurrected life in a new heavens and a new earth, but that must be a further study.

Bibliography: Buis, H., "Sheol," in ZPEB, V, p. 395. Dahood, M., Psalms, in AB, vol. III, pp. xli-1ii. David, John D., "The Future Life in Hebrew Thought During the Pre-Persian Period," PTR 5:631-41. Gordis, Roben, "Studies in Hebrew Roots of Contrasted Meanings," JQR 27:33-58. Harzis, R. L., "The Meaning of the Word Sheol as shown by Parallels in Poetic Passages," JETS 4:129-35. Heidel, A., "Death and the Afterlife" chap. III in The Gilgamesh Epic, University of Chicago, 1946, pp. 137-223. Hooke, S. H., "Life after Death: V. Israel and the After-Life," Exp T 76:236-39. Sutcllife, E. F., The OT and the Future Life, 1947. TDNT, I, pp. 146-48. THAT, II, pp. 841-43. R.L.H.

Сначала необходимо выделить слова, которые являются однокоренными и которые без сомнения имеют связь со словом ШЕОЛ:

2303.0 שָׁאַל (shaal) ask, inquire, borrow, beg. спросить, спрашивать, одолжить, выпросить.

(2303a) שְׁאֵלָה (sheela) request, demand. запрос, требование

(2303b) מִשְׁאָלָה (mishala)petition, desire. ходатайство, желание.

(2303c) שְּׁאוֹל (sheol) sheol, grave, hell, pit. шеол, могила, ад, яма.

Отсюда можно выразить мысль смысла ШЕОЛа.
Пока человек пребывает в ШЕОЛе на небесах решается его участь. Есть запрос по человеку и ответ всегда неутешителен: никто не достоин вечности. Но здесь также присутствует ходатайство за человека, если тот согласился на Божью волю относительно его... Желание Господа - всегда видеть человека в вечности, но всё зависит от выбора человека... От человека, пребывающего в ШЕОЛе, абсолютно ничего не зависит.
Это были мои размышления.[/QUOTE]