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Тема: notes in Pentateuch of John

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    Chapter 11
    11:1 reed. A bamboo-like cane that often reached a height of 20 feet and grew in abundance in the waters along the banks of the Jordan. Straight and light, the reed was a convenient measuring rod (see Eze 40:3; Zec 2:1-2). temple. See note on 7:15. altar. The context of worship suggests that this is the great altar.
    11:2 outer court. The court of the Gentiles, approximately 26 acres. trample on the holy city. Cf. Ps 79:1; Isa 63:18; Lk 21:24. 42 months. Three and a half years. Some find the background for this period in the time of Jewish suffering under the Syrian tyrant, Antiochus Epiphanes (168-165 B.C.). OTHERS POINT OUT THAT, WHEREAS THE TEMPLE WAS DESOLATED FOR THREE YEARS UNDER ANTIOCHUS, THE FIGURE USED IN REVELATION IS THREE AND A HALF YEARS, WHICH NO DOUBT LOOKS BACK TO THE DIVIDING OF THE 70 th "seven" (Da 9:27) into two equal parts. The same time period is also designated as 1.260 days (v. 3; 12:6) and as "a time, times and half a time" (12:14; cf. Da 7:25; 12:7). This period of time evidently became a conventional symbol for a limited period of unrestrained wickedness.
    11:3 two witnesses. Modeled after Moses and Elijah (see notes on vv. 5-6). They may symbolize testifying believers in the final period before Christ returns. Or they may be two actual individuals who will be martyred for the proclamation of the truth. 1.260 days. See note on v. 2. These are months of 30 days (42 months × 30 days = 1.260 days). sackcloth. A coarse, dark cloth woven from the hair of goats or camels. It was worn as a sign of mourning and penitence (Joel 1:13; Jnh 3:5-6; Mt 11:21).
    11:4 The imagery emphasizes that the power for effective testimony is supplied by the Spirit of God (see notes on Zec 4).
    11:5 fire comes ... and devours. Cf. Elijah's encounters with the messengers of Ahaziah (2Ki 1:10,12).
    11:6 power to shut up sky. Cf. the drought in the days of Elijah (1Ki 17:1; see also Lk 4:25; Jas 5:17). water int blood. God used Moses to bring the same plague on the Egyptians (Ex 7:17-21).
    11:7 the beast. First mention of the major opponent of God's people in the final days (see chs. 13; 17). That he comes up from the Abyss (see note on 9:1) indicates his demonic character. kill them. They will suffer the same fate as their Lord (see v. 8).
    11:8 Their bodies will lie in the street. In the Near East the denial of burial was a flagrant violation of decency. great city. Possibly Jerusalem, though some say Rome, Babylon or some other city. It may be symbolic of the world opposed to God (see 16:19; 17:18; 18:10,16,18-19,21). Sodom (see similarly Isa 1:10) refers to its low level of morality (cf. Ge 19:4-11), and Egypt emphasizes oppression and slavery. Some say that Jesus could have been crucified in Rome in the sense that her power extended throughout the known world and was immediately responsible for Christ's execution.
    11:9 three and a half days. A short time when compared with the three and a half years of their ministry. refuse them burial. See note on v. 8.
    11:11 a breath of life from God entered them. A dramatic validation of the true faith (cf. Eze 37:5,10).
    11:12 went up to heaven in a cloud. Cf. 1Th 4:17. enemies looked on. Cf. 1:7.
    11:13 earthquake. See notes on 6:12; Eze 38:19. gave glory to the God of heaven. Not an act of repentance but the terrified realization that Christ, not the antichrist, is the true Lord of all.
    11:14 second woe. Cf. 9:12.
    11:15 seventh angel sounded. The series of trumpet blasts is now continued (see 9:13) and completed. kingdom of our Lord. Cf. Ex 15:18; Ps 10:16; Zec 14:9. of our Lord and of his Christ. Cf. Ps 2:2.
    11:16 twenty-four elders. See note on 4:4.
    11:17 One who is and who was. In 1:4,8; 4:8 he is also the one "who is to come"- this is now omitted because his reign is here pictured as having begun.
    11:18 nations were angry. See Ps 48:4. Your wrath. See note on 6:16. God's wrath triumphs in 14:10-11; 16:15-21; 20:11-15. your servants the prophets. See Da 9:6,10; Am 3:7; Zec 1:6.
    11:19 ark of his covenant. The OT ark was a chest of acacia wood (Dt 10:1-2). It symbolized the throne or presence of God among his people. It was probably destroyed when Nebuzaradan destroyed the temple in Jerusalem (2Ki 25:8-10). In the NT it symbolizes God's faithfulness in keeping covenant with his people. Lightning ... hailstorm. See note on 4:5.

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    12:1 sign. An extraordinary spectacle or event that points beyond itself. (cf. Lk 21:11,25; Ac 2:9). a woman clothed with the sun. Probably a symbolic reference to the believing Messianic community (see v. 5) twelve stars. Cf. the 12 tribes of Israel.
    12:2 cried out in pain. Cf. the similar language describing the rebirth of Jerusalem in Isa 66:7 (see Mic 4:10).
    12:3 red dragon. Identified in v. 9 (cf. 20:2). Dragons abound in the mythology of ancient peoples (Leviathan in Canaanite lore and Set-Typhon, the red crocodile, in Egypt). In the OT they are normally used metaphorically to depict the enemies of God and of Israel (see Ps 74:14; Isa 27:1; Eze 29:3). seven heads. Symbolizing universal wisdom (cf. 13:1). ten horns. Symbolizing great power.
    12:5 a son, a male child. The Messiah. iron scepter. See note on 2:27. snatched up to God. The ascension of Christ..
    12:6 desert. Not a wasteland but a place of spiritual refuge (cf. Hos. 2:14). 1.260 days. The time of spiritual protection corresponds to the time of persecution (see note on 11:2; cf. 13:5).
    12:7 Michael. An archangel who defeats satan in heavenly warfare. In Da 12:1 he is the protector of Israel who will deliver her from tribulation in the last days.
    12:9 dragon was hurled ... to the earth. Not the original casting of satan out of heaven but his final exclusion - an explanation of his intense hostility againts God's people in the last days (vv. 12-17). devil, or satan. See notes on 2:9-10. leads ... astray. Cf. 2Co 11:3; see also Lk 22:31; Jn 13:2.
    12:10 accuser. See Job 1:9-11; Zec 3:1. Satan in Hebrew means "accuser."
    12:11 blood of the Lamb. See note on 5:9; see also 1:5; 7:14.
    12:12 his time is short. The period of final, intense hostility of satan toward the people of God.
    12:13-16 Cf. the similarity to the exodus.
    12:14 desert. See note on v. 6. a time, times and half a time. One year plus two years plus half a year (see note on 11:2).
    12:16 earth helped ... by opening its mouth. In Nu 16:30-33 the earth opened and swallowed Korah's men.
    12:17 rest of her offspring. Believers in general as contrasted with Christ, the male child of vv. 5,13. testimony of Jesus. The testimony that Jesus bore (cf. 1:2,9; 19:10).

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    Chapter 13
    13:1 beast coming out of the sea. First mentioned in 11:7. According to some, the beast symbolizes the Roman empire, the deification of secular authority. According to others, he is the final, person antichrist. The background seems to be Daniel's vision of the four great beasts (Da 7:2-7). See 17:8-11 for the interpreting angel's explanantion of the beast. ten horns. See 17:2. blasphemous name. Roman emperors tended to assume titles of deity. Domitioan, e.g., was addressed as Dominus et Deus noster ("Our Lord and God").
    13:2 leopard ... ,ear ... lion. John's beast combined characteristics of Daniel's four bests. whole world was astonished. See 17:8 for the same reaction.
    13:5 was given. Four times in the Greek text of vv. 5-7 the passive "was given" occurs, emphasizing the subordinate role of the beast (see vv. 2,4). forty-two months. See note on 11:2.
    13:7 make war. See 12:17; see also Da 7:7.
    13:8 book of life belonging to the Lamb. See note on 3:5. slain from the creation of the world. [NIV text note: Or written from the creation of the world in the book of life belonging to the Lamb that was slain.] (cf. 17:8). See also Isa 53:7; Jn 1:29,36).
    13:11 another beast, coming out of the earth. According to some, he symbolizes religious power in the service of secular authorities. According to others, he is the personal false prophet (see 16:33; 19:20; 20:10). two horns like a lamb. He attempts to appear gentle and harmless. spoke like a dragon. See Jesus' warning in Mt 7:15 about ravenous wolves who come in sheep's clothing.
    13:12 exercised all the authority of the first beast. The trinity of evil is now complete. The beast from the earth is under the authority of the beast from the sea. The latter is subject to the dragon. Satan, secular power and religious compromise (or satan, the antichrist and false prphet) join against the cause of God; Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
    13:13 miraculous signs. See the warning in Dt 13:1-3; see also Mt 24:24; 2Th 2:9; cf. Rev 19:20. fire ... from heaven. See 1Ki 18:24-39.
    13:14 set up an image. Cf. Da 3:1-11; 2Th 2:4.
    13:15 it could speak. Belief in statues that could speak is widely attested in ancient literature. Ventriloquism and other forms of deception were common.
    13:16 mark. Whatever its origin - possibly the branding of slaves or enemy soldiers, the sealing and stamping of official documents, or the sign of the cross on the forehead of a new Christian - the mark of the beast apparently symbolized allegiance to the demands of the imperial cult. In the final days of the antichrist it will be the ultimate test of loyalty (cf. v. 17; 14:9,11; 15:2; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4). It imitates the sealing of the servants of God in ch. 7.
    13:17 buy or sell. Economic boycott against all faithful believers. number of his name. In ancient times the letters of the alphabet served for numbers. Riddles using numerical equivalents for names were popular.
    13:18 666. Various schemes for decoding these numbers result in such names as Euanthas, Lateinos, and Nero Caesar (currently the favorite). Others take 666 as a symbol for the trinity of evil and imperfection - each digit falls short of the perfect number 7.
    The name is: GLOBAL KINGDOM with 6 power authorized institutes of "great", 60 commercial oligarchy of "rich" and 600 section of shelter food supply of "freemason" - with mark of the beast on their foreheads. The rest of: "small, poor, slave" - with mark of the beast on their right hands. By the calamity which turned every kind product of food radioactive and many others biochemical poisoner, only purified food shelter will have guarantee of safety. Without mark people may have any kind of food, but with deadly result of it.
    Israel will have receive false god in the Temple. Time is short he will be reign 7 years. The world population in his time will be about "gold billion" and to feed them demands water and food supply (for this solution was developed by researchers from the global partnership CGIAR, which strives to eradicate hunger and poverty in distressed regions of the world.
    Now it development grew in adapting military technologies to agricultural use. The BIRD Foundation has just recently approved two collaborations in agriculture, and increased its activity in initiating and encouraging joint development of agricultural applications by Israeli and U.S. companies).
    Последний раз редактировалось GeorgH; 12.09.2018 в 20:56.

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    14:1 Lamb. See note on 5:6. Mount Zion. In the OT it was first the fortress of the pre-Israelite city of Jerusalem (2Sa 5:7), captured by David and established as his capital. Later it became a virtual synonym for Jerusalem. In Revelation, as in Heb 12:22-24, it is the heavenly Jerusalem, the eternal swelling place of God and his people (cf. Gal 4:26). It comes down to the new earth in 21:2-3. 144.000. See note on 7:4. name. Contrast 13:16-18.
    14:2 harps. See note on 5:8.
    14:3 new song. See note on 5:9. The theme is deliverance.
    14:4 not defile themselves with women. Probably a symbolic description of believers who kept themselves from defiling relationships withe pagan world system. follow the Lamb. As his disciples (see Mt 19:21; Mk 8:34). first-fruits. See Lev 23:9-14. The word is used figuratively in the NT for the first converts in an area (Ro 16:5) and the first to rise from the dead (1Co 15:20). In Revelation believers are considered as a choice offering to God and the Lamb.
    14:5 No lie. Contrast Ro 1:25; see Isa 53:9.
    14:6 eternal gospel. The content of this "good news" is perhaps found in v. 7.
    14:7 him who made the heavens. See Ex 20:11; Ps 146:6.
    14:8 Babylon the Great. Ancient Babylon in Mesopotamia was the political, commercial and religious center of a world empire. It was noted for its luxury and moral decadence. The title "Babylon the Great" is taken from Da 4:30. According to some, it is used in Revelation (e.g., here and in 16:19; 17:5;18:2,10,21) for Rome as the center of opposition to God and his people. According to others, it represents the whole political and religious system of the world in general. According to still others, it is to be understood as literal Babylon -rebuilt and restored. Babylon's fall is proclaimed in Isa 21:9; Jer 51:8. maddening wine of her adulteries. Here Babylon (Rome?) is pictured as a prostitute whose illicit relations are achieved by intoxication.
    14:10 cup of his wrath. In the OT God's wrath is commonly pictured as a cup of wine to be drunk (Ps 75:8; Isa 51:17; Jer 25:15). It is not the outworking of impersonal laws of retribution but the response of a righteous God to those who refuse his love and grace. burning sulfur. Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed by a rain of burning sulfur (Ge 19:24). Ps 11:6 speaks of a similar fate for the wicked. The figure occurs elsewhere in the OT and the Apocrypha. It is used several times in the final chapters of Revelation (19:20; 20:10; 21:8).
    14:11 torment ... for ever and ever. Revelation offers no support for the doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked (also compare 19:20 with 20:10).
    14:13 Blessed. The second beatitude (see note on 1:3).
    14:14 son of man. See 1:13 and notes on Da 7:13; Mk 8:31. crown of gold. A victory wrath of gold. See note on 2:10 for the comparison between the victory crown and the royal crow. sickle. The Israelite sickle used for cutting grain was normally a flint or iron blade attached to a curved shaft of wood or bone.
    14:15 harvest of the earth. Symbolizes in a general way the coming judgment (see Mt 13:30,40-42). Some interpreters think it refers to the in-gathering of the righteous at the return of Christ.
    14:18 another angel, who had charge of the fire. The angel of 5:3-5. Fire is commonly associated with judgment (see Mt 18:8; Lk 9:54; 2Th 1:7). sharp sickle. The context suggests (in contrast to the sickle of v. 14) the smaller grape-knife with which the farmer cut the clusters of grapes from the vine.
    14:19 wine-press. A rock-hewn trough about eight feet square with a channel leading to a lower and smaller trough. Grapes were thrown into the upper vat and tramped with bare feet. The juice was collected in the lower vat. At times mechanical pressure was added. The treading of grapes was common OT figure for the execution of divine wrath (see Isa 63:3; La 1:15; Joel 3:13).
    14:20 outside the city. Bloodshed would defile the city (see Joel 3:12-14; Zec 14:1-4; cf. Heb 13:12). 1.600 stadia. [that is about 180 miles/300 kilometers], It is approximately the length of Palestine from north to south.

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    Revelation 15 on line

    15:1-8 Introduces the last of the three sevenfold series of judgments - the bowls of wrath (see note 8:2).
    15:1 God's wrath. See note on 6:16.
    15:2 sea of glass. See note on 4:6. victorious over the beast. Cf. the saints' victory over the devil in 12:11. number of his name. See notes on 13:16-18. harps. See note on 5:8.
    15:3 song of Moses. See Ex 15; Dt 32. Ex 15:1-18 was sung on Sabbath evenings in the synagogue to celebrate Israel's great deliverance from Egypt. song of the Lamb. The risen Lord triumphed over his enemies in securing spiritual deliverance for his followers. (cf. Ps 22). Great and marvelous are your deeds. See Ex 15:11; Ps 92:5; 111:2. Almighty. See note on 1:8. King of the ages. See Jer 10:10; cf. 1Ti 1:17.
    15:4 Universal recognition of God is taught in both the OT (Ps 86:9; Isa 45:22-23; Mal 1:11) and the NT (Php 2:9-11).
    15:5 tabernacle of the Testimony. The swelling place of God during the desert wandering of the Israelites (see Ex 10:34-35). It was so named because the ancient tent contained the two tablets of the Testimony brought down from Mount Sinai (Ex 32:15; 38:21; Dt 10:5).
    15:6 seven plagues. The last series of plagues (see v. 1). golden sashes. Symbolic of royal and priestly functions.
    15:7 wrath of God. Cf. 2Th 1:7-9.
    15:8 filled with smoke. Cf. Ex 40:34; 1Ki 8:10-11; Eze 44:4. Smoke symbolizes the power and glory of God.

    Revelation 16 on line

    16:2 land. Compare the first four bowls (vv. 2-9) with the first four trumpets (8:7-12). ugly and painful sores. Cf. the boils and abscesses of the sixth Egyptian plague (Ex 9:9-11; see also Job 2:7-8,13). mark of the beast. See 13:16 and note.
    16:4 revers and springs of water. Cf. 8:10-11; see also Ps 78:44.
    16:5 you who are and who were. See note on 11:17; cf. Ex 3:14.
    16:7 altar. Personified.
    16:8 fire. Often connected with judgment in Scripture (see Dt 28:22; 1Co 3:13; 2Pe 3:7).
    16:9 refused to repent. In 11:13 the nations were dazzled int homage by the great earthquake. Here they curse the name of God.
    16:10 throne of the beast. Cf. Satan's throne in 2:13. "Throne" occurs 42 times in Revelation. The other 40 references are to the throne of God. gnawed their tongues. Cf. the scene in 6:15-17.
    16: 11 God of heave. Used in Da 2:44 of the sovereign God, who destroys the kingdoms of the world and establishes his universal and eternal reign.
    16:12 Euphrates. See note on 9:14. kings from the East. Evidently Parthian rulers (17:15-18:24), to be distinguished from the "kings of the whole world" (v. 14), who wage the final war against Christ and the armies of heaven (19:11-21).
    16:13 frogs. Lev 11:10 classifies the frog as an unclean animal. the imagery suggests the deceptive propaganda that will, in the last days, lead people to accept and support the cause of evil.
    16:14 miraculous signs. Cf. 13:13. kings of the whole world. See 6:15. great day of God. See 19:11-21 for this battle.
    16:15 Blessed. The third beatitude (see note on 1:3).
    16:16 Armageddon. Probably stands for Har Mageddon, "the mountain of Megiddo" (see note on Jdg 5:19). Many see no specific geographical reference in the designation and take it to be a symbol of the final overthrow of evil by God.

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    17:1 seven angels. Cf. 15:1; 16. great prostitute. See v. 18 for the angel's own identification of this symbol. In 17:5 the harlot is named "Babylon the Great." sites on many waters. See Ps 137:1; Jer 51:13.
    17:2 wine of her adulteries. See note on 14:8; cf. 18:3; Isa 23:17; Jer 51:7.
    17:3 in the Spirit. In a state of spiritual ecstasy (see notes on 1:10; 4:2; see also 21:10). scarlet beast. The beast that rose out of the sea in ch. 13. blasphemous names. See note on 13:1.
    17:5 MYSTERY. Possibly not a part of the title. The opening part of the of the verse would then be translated "This mysterious title was written on her forehead: BABYLON..." See note on 14:8.
    17:6 saints ... those who bore testimony. See 6:9.
    17:7 mystery. See note on 10:7.
    17:8 once was, now is not, and will come. An obvious imitation of the description of the Lamb (1:18; 2:8). Cf. the description of God in 1:4,8; 4:8. Here the phrase seems to mean that the beast appeared once, is not presently evident, but will in the future again make his presence known. Evil is persistent. Abyss. See note on (:1. book of life. See note on 3:5. go to his destruction. although evil is real and persistent, there is no uncertainty about its ultimate fate.
    17:9 seven hills. It is perhaps significant that Rome began as a network of seven hill settlements of the left bank of the Tiber. Her designation as the city on seven hills is commonplace among Roman writers (e.g., Virgil, Martial, Cicero).
    10:10 seven kings. That seven heads symbolize both seven hills and seven kings illustrates the fluidity of apocalyptic symbolism, unless the hills are figurative for royal (or political) power. Five ... one ... the other. Taken (1) as seven actual Roman emperors, (2) as seven secular empires or (3) symbolically as the power of the Roman empire as a whole.
    17:11 now is not. Cf. 13:3. eighth king. The antichrist, who plays the role of a king ("belongs to the seven") but is in reality part of the cosmic struggle between God and satan.
    17:12 one hour. A short time.
    17:14 Lord of lords and King of kings. Emphasizes the supreme sovereignty of the Lamb (cf. Dt 10:17; Ps 136:2-3; Da 2:47; 1Ti 6:15).
    17:18 great city. Cf. 17:1; see notes on 11:8; 14:8.

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    Revelation 18 on line

    18:1 earth was illuminated by his splendor. Cf. Ex 34:29-35; Ps 104:2; Eze 43:1-5; 1Ti 6:16.
    18:2 Fallen is Babylon. Cf. Isa 21:9; Jer 51:8; see notes on 11:8; 14:8.
    18:3 wine of her adulteries. See note on 14:8.
    18:4 Come out of her. A common prophetic warning (cf. Isa 52:11; Jer 51:45; 2Co 6:17).
    18:6 double. In full, sufficiently (see note on Isa 40:2). her own cup. See 17:4.
    18:7 I am not a widow. A claim that the men of Babylon have not died on battlefields.
    18:9-20 Three groups lament: (1) kings (v. 9), (2) merchants (v. 11) and (3) seamen (v. 17). The passage modeled after Ezekiel's lament over Tyre (Eze 27). Fifteen of the 29 commodities in vv.. 12-13 are also listed in Eze 27:12:22.
    18:9 kings ... weep and mourn over her. Probably because of their own great financial loss (see v. 11).
    18:12 purple. An expensive dye since it must be extracted a drop at a time from the murex shellfish. citron wood. An expensive dark wood from north Africa - used for inlay work in costly furniture. marble. Used to decorate public buildings and the homes of the very rich.
    18:13 myrrh and frankincense. Brought by the Magi as gifts for the infant Jesus (Mt 2:11). bodies and souls of men. Slave trade.
    18:17 sea captain. The pilot of the ship rather than the owner. Both are mentioned in Ac 27:11.
    18:19 throw dust on their heads. An act of sorrow and dismay (see Eze 27:30). In one hour. See vv. 10,17.
    18:21 large millstone. Similar to the large millstone of Mk 9:42 which was actually a "donkey millstone" (one large enough to require a donkey to turn it).
    18:24 blood of prophets. See 6:10; 17:6; 19:2; cf. Eze 24:7.

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    19:1 great multitude. See note on 7:9. Hallelujah! Occurs four times in vv. 1-6 but nowhere else in the NT. It is derived from two Hebrew words meaning "Praise the LORD." (see NIV text note on Ps 135:1).
    19:4 Twenty-four elders and the four living creatures. See note on 4:4,6.
    19:7 wedding of the Lamb. The imagery of a wedding to express the intimate relationship between God and hos people has its roots in the prophetic literature of the OT (e.g., Isa 54:5-7; Hos 2:19). Cf. the NT usage (Mt 22:2-14; Eph 5:32).
    19:9 Blessed. The fourth beatitude (see note on 1:3).
    19:10 fell at his feet. See note on 1:17; cf. Ac 10:25. spirit. Essence.
    19:11 white horse. Probably not the white horse of 6:2. The context here indicates that the rider is Christ returning as Warrior-Messiah-King.
    19:12 name written. A secret name whose meaning is veiled from all created beings.
    19:13 robe dipped in blood. Either the blood of the enemy shed in conflict (cf. 14:14-20; Isa 63:1-3), or the blood of Christ shed to atone for sin.
    19:14 armies of heaven. Angelic beings (cf. Dt 33:2; Ps 68:17); possibly also believers (cf. 17:14).
    19:15 sharp sword. See note on 1:16. iron scepter. See note 2:27. wine-press. See note on 14:19.
    19:16 KING OF KINGS. See note on 17:14.
    19:17 great supper of God. A grim contrast to the "wedding supper of the Lamb" (v. 9; cf. Eze 39:17-20).
    19:20 beast ... false prophet. See notes on 13:1,11. fiery lake of burning sulfur. See 20:10,14-15; 21:8. Punishment by fire is prominent in both Biblical and non-Biblical Jewish writings (e.g., 1 Enoch 54:1). Although the designation gehenna is not used here, this is what John refers to (see note on Mt 5:22). Originally the site of a cultic shrine where human sacrifices were offered (2Ki 16:3; 23:10; Jer 7:31), it came to be equated with the "hell" of final judgment in apocalyptic literature.
    19:21 birds gorged themselves. The "great supper of God" of vv. 17-18.

    Revelation 20

    20:1-22:21 These last three chapters reflect many of the subjects and themes of the first three chapters of Genesis.
    20:1 Abyss. See note on 9:1.
    20:2 dragon. See note on 12:3. ancient serpent. See 12:15; Ge 3:1-5. thousand years. The millennium (from the Latin mile, "thousand," and annus, "year"). It is taken literally by some as 1.000 actual years, while others interpret it metaphorically as a long but undetermined period of time. There are three basic approaches to the subject of the millennium: 1.Amillennialism: The millennium describes the present reign of the souls of deceased believers with Christ in heaven. The present form of God's kingdom will be followed by Christ's return, the general resurrection, the final judgment and Christ's continuing reign over the perfect kingdom on the new earth in the eternal state. 2. Premillennialism: The present form of God's kingdom is moving toward a grand climax when Christ will return, the first resurrection will occur and his kingdom will find expression in a literal, visible reign of peace and righteousness on the earth in space-time history. After the final resurrection, the last judgment and the renewal of the heavens and the earth, this future, temporal kingdom will merge into the eternal kingdom, and Lord will reign forever on the new earth. 3. Postmillennialism: The world will evetually be Christanized. resulting in a long period of peace and prosperity called the millennium. This future period will close with Christ's second coming, the resurrection of the dead, the final judgment and the eternal state.
    20:3 free for a short time. See vv.7-10.
    20:4 souls of those who had been beheaded. See 6:9-11. his mark. See note on 13:16. came life. The "first resurrection" (v. 5).
    20:5 rest of the dead. Either the wicked or everyone except the martyrs (see v. 4).
    20:6 Blessed. The fifth beatitude (see note on 1:3). second death. Defined in v. 14 as the "lake on fire" (cf. 21:8).
    20:7 thousand years. See note on v. 2.
    20:8 Gog and Magog. Symbolize the nations of the world as they band together for a final assault on God. The OT background is Eze 38-39.
    20:10 tormented day and night. See note on 14:11; cf. 14:10.
    20:12 book of life. See note on 3:5. judgment according to what they had done. The principle of judgment of the basis of works is taught in Ps 62:12; Jer 17:10; Ro 2:6; 1Pe 1:17 and elsewhere.
    20:13 death and Hades. See 6:8 and note.
    20:14-15 lake of fire. See note on 19:20.

    Revelation 21
    21:2-22:5 The "hole City" combines elements of Jerusalem, the temple and Garden of Eden.
    21:2 bride. See note on 19:7.
    21:3 dwelling of God. See Lev 26:11-12; Eze 37:27; 2Co 6:16.
    21:4 wipe every tear. See 7:17; Isa 25:8.
    21:6 the Alpha and the Omega. See note on 1:8. water of life. Cf. Ps 36:9.
    21:7 he who overcomes. Cf. the emphasis on overcoming in the seven letters (2:7,11,17,26; 3:5,12,21).
    21:8 magic arts. Cf. Ac 19:19. The magical tradition in ancient times called for the mixing of various herbs to ward off evil. fiery lake of burning sulfur. See note on 19:20.
    21:9 seven last plagues. See 15:1
    21:10 in the Spirit. See notes on 1:10; 4:2; 17:3.
    21:12 twelve gates. See Eze 48:30-35. The number 12 probable emphasizes the continuity of NT church and the OT people of God. See v. 14, where the 12 foundations bear the names of the 12 apostles.
    21:15 measure the city. Cf. Eze 40:41. In Rev 11 the measuring was to ensure protection; here it serves to show the size and symmetry of the eternal dwelling place of the faithful.
    21:16 length ... wide ... high. Thus a perfect cube, as was the Most Holy Place of the tabernacle and the temple.
    21:17 144 cubits. [That is, about 200 feet (about 65 meters)].
    21:20 [The precise identification of some of these precious stones is uncertain.]
    21:27 Lamb's book of life. See note on 3:5.

    Revelation 22
    22:2 three of life. See Ge 2:9; 3:22; Eze 47:12.
    22:4 They will see his face. In ancient times criminals were banished from the presence of the king (Est 7:8; cf. 2Sa 14:24). One blessing of eternity will be to see the Lord face to face (cf. 1Co 13:12). his name. See note on 3:12.
    22:5 they will reign. See 5:10; 20:6; Da 7:18,27.
    22:6 his servants. See v. 3. things that must soon take place. See 1:1,19.
    22:7 I am coming soon! See vv. 12,20; 2:16; 3:11. Blessed. The sixth beatitude (see note on 1:3).
    22:8 fell down to worship. See note on 1:17.
    22:10 Do not seal up the words. Contrast Ds 12:4.
    22:12 I am coming coon! See vv. 7,20; 2:16; 3:11. according to what he has done. See notes on 2:23; 20:12.
    22:13 the Alpha and the Omega. See note on 1:8.
    22:14 Blessed. The last of the seven beatitudes (see note on 1:3).
    22:15 dogs. A term applied to all types of ceremonially impure persons. In Dt 23:18 it designates a male prostitute.
    22:16 my angel. Cf. 1:1. the root and the Offspring of David. See note on 5:5; cf. Isa 11:1,10; Ro 1:3. bright Morning Star. See Nu 24:17.
    22:18-19 Cf. the commands in Dt 4:2; 12:32. the warning relates specifically to the book of Revelation.
    22:20 I am coming soon. See vv. 7,12; 2:16; 3:11. Come, Lord Jesus. See note on 1Co 16:22.

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